]pfn-¸p-WvtSm I¿nÂ

a¯m-bn-bpsS kphn-tijw 16: 5þ12 `mK§fnse Hcp {][m\ hnjbw ]pfn-am-hm-Wv.  {InkvXp ]dªp: ]co-i³am-cpsS ]pfn¨ amhns\ kq£n¨p sImÄhn³.

]co-icpw kZq-I-y-cp-an-Ãm¯ {InkvXob kaq-l-¯n Cu D]tZ-i¯n\v {]k-àn-bp-WvtSm F¶p tXm¶n-tb-¡mw.

\½psS Bßob Pohn-X-¯n {]Xn-k-Ôn-bpWvSm¡p¶ kZq-Iycpw ]co-icpw C¶pw [mcm-f-apWvSv.  kX-y{InkvX-ym\n te_-epÅ \½n ]ecpw {InkvXp hnaÀin¨ kZq-I-ycpw ]co-i-cp-am-Wv.

       ]co-i-·mÀ ssZho-I-{]-amWw A£-cw-{]Xn A\p-k-cn-¡p¶ Fcn-hpÅ hni-zm-kn-I-fm-Wv.  ]s£ ChÀs¡mcp Ipg-¸-apWvSv.  ssZh-h-N-\-t¯mSv ChÀ¡v Bh-i-y-ap-ÅsXms¡ Iq«n-t¨À¡pw. im_Xv hnip-²-ambn BNcn¡W-sa-¶pÅ ssZh-I¸-\bv¡v A\p-_-Ô-ambn At\Iw A\p-_Ô \nb-a-§Ä ChÀ Iq«n-t¨À¯p þ F´p Ign-¡mw, F{X-Zqcw \S-¡mw, F{X-`mcw FSp¡mw A§s\ A\-h[n \nb-a-§Ä. AXp-sImWvSmWv im_-Xnsâ IÀ¯m-hmb tbiphnt\mSv ]co-i³amÀ tNmZn-¨-Xv: im_-Xn hnln-X-a-Ãm-¯Xv \n§Ä sN¿p¶Xv F´v? eqt¡mkv 6:2.  ssZh-I¸-\sb kz´ CjvS-{]-Imcw hf-s¨-mSn¨ ]co-isc hnaÀin-¨p-sImWvSv {InkvXp ]d-ªp:  ‘\ymbimkv{Xn-am-cmb \n§Ä¡v At¿m IjvSw! FSp-¸m³ {]bm-k-apÅ Npa-Sp-Isf \n§Ä a\p-j-y-sc-¡vsImWvSp Npa-¸n-¡p¶p \n§Ä Hcp hnc sImWvSp t]mepw B Npa-Sp-Isf sXmSp-¶n-Ã.’

       cWvSmaXv, `àn-bpsS _ml-y-{]-I-S-\-§Ä¡mWv AhÀ {]m[m-\yw \ÂInbncp¶Xv. ]c-a-`-à-sc¶p Bfp-Isf t_m[-y-s¸-Sp-¯p-hm\pÅ Bßob {]I-S-\-§-fnepw hkv{X-[m-c-W-¯nepw `mhm-`n-\-b-¯nepsams¡-bm-bn-cp¶p Ch-cpsS {i².  ssZh-Xn-cp-\ma al-X-z-aà al-X-z-amWv ChÀ B{K-ln-¨ncp¶Xv.

       CXp-cWvSpamWv ]co-i-·m-cpsS ]pfn-¨-am-hv. C¶pw At\Iw hnizm-kn-I-fn {InkvXp hnaÀin¨ ]pfn¸v ImWmw.  lrZ-b-¯n ]Ibpw hntZ-z-j--hp-am-Ip¶ ]pfn-¸p-Å-t¸mgpw ]pdsa `àn-bpsS Bthi {]I-S-\-§Ä \S-¯p¶ shÅtX¨ ih-¡-Ã-d-bpsS Zpc-h-Ø.

       kZq-I-y-sc¶ ]pfn-amhv asäm-cn-\-am-Wv.  aXcmjv{Sob taJ-e-I-fn henb kzm-[o-\-apÅ ChÀ ssZh-IÂ]-\-IÄ `mKn-I-am-bnt« A\p-k-cn-¨n-cp-¶p-Åp. ac-Wm-\-´c Pohn-Xw, kzÀ¤w, \cIw XpS-§n-b-h-sbms¡ sI«pI-YIfmsW-¶mbncp¶p Ch-cpsS hni-zm-kw.  ]p\-cp-°m-\-an-söp hni-z-kn-¨n-cp¶ kZqIyÀ {InkvXp-hns\ sIWn-bn hogv¯p-hm³ tNmZy-hp-ambn hcp-¶Xv a¯m-bn 22 : 23-þ29 `mK¯n tcJ-s¸-Sp-¯n-bn-«pWvSv. They were liberal idealists, rationalist and meterialists.

ac-Wm-\-´c PohnXw, \ym-b-hn-[n, kzÀ¤w, \cIw F¶-sXms¡ a\p-j-ysâ shdpw `mh-\-IfmsW¶p hni-z-kn-¡p¶ ssZh-im-kv{X-Ú³amcpw CS-b³amcpw hni-zm-kn-Ifpw C¶pWvSv.  AXnÀh-c-¼p-I-fn-ÃmsX, Ipä-t_m-[-an-ÃmsX Bk-ànbpw sshIr-X-§fpw Bk-z-Zn-¡p-hm³ B{K-ln-¡p-¶hÀ kzbw cq]-s¸-Sp-¯nb ssZh-im-kv{X-am-Wn-Xv. At\Iw hni-zm-kn-Isf ChÀ hgn-sX-än¡p¶pWvSv;  CXmWv kZq-I-y-cpsS ]pfn-am-hv.

       kmZq-Iy þ ]coi {]am-Wn-I-fpsS e£yw {InkvXp-hnÂ\n¶pw P\-§sf X§-fn-te¡p Xncn¸n¡pI F¶-Xm-bn-cp-¶p.  C¶pw kmZq-Iy þ ]coi {InkvX-ym-\n-I-fpsS e£-yhpw hni-zm-kn-Isf {InkvXp-hnÂ\n¶v A_² [mc-W-I-fn-te¡pw A\m-Nm-c-§-fn-te¡pw BÄ ssZh-§-fn-te¡pw Xncn-¸n-¡pI F¶-Xm-Wv.

       Cu cWvSp ]pfn-¸p-I-tfbpw kq£n-¡-W-sa¶ {InkvXp-hnsâ ap¶-dn-bn¸v \mw Kuc-h-ambn FSp-¡-Ww. ]pfn¸v GXp-h-kvXp-hntâbpw ASn-Øm\ KpW-§Ä amän-¡-f-bpw. Xncp-h-N-\s¯ ]pfn-¸n-¡p-Ibpw Zpjn-¸n-¡p-Ibpw sN¿p¶ D]-tZi§tfbpw D]-tZjvSm¡tfbpw kq£n-¡-Ww.

`m-K-y-hm-\mb ]utemkv asäm-cp-Xcw ]pfn-¸ns\¸änbpw ]d-bp-¶pWvSv

\n§-fpsS CS-bn ZpÀ\-S¸p DWvsS¶p tIÄ¡p-¶p. Hcp-¯³ Xsâ A¸sâ `mc-ysb sh¨p-sIm-Åp-¶pt]mÂ; AXp PmXn-I-fnÂt]mepw CÃm¯ ZpÀ\-S-¸p-X-s¶. Akmcw ]pfn-amhp ]nÞ¯ apgp-h\pw ]pfn-¸n-¡p-¶p. B ZpjvSs\ \n§-fpsS CS-bnÂ\n¶p \o¡n-¡-f-hn³. 1 sImcn-´yÀ 5:1

A[mÀ½nI PohnXw \bn-¡p-¶-hÀ IpSpw-_-¯nepw Zm¼-X-y-¯nepw k`-bnepw {]Xn-k-Ôn-bpWvSm¡pw, Ah-cpsS aen\ kz-`m-h-am-Ip¶ ]pfn-amhv aäp-Å-h-tcbpw Zpjn-¸n-¡pw.

ssZ-h-¯nsâ k`      hnip-²-cpsS Iq«-am-I-W-sa-¶mWv ssZhw B{K-ln-¡p-¶-Xv. km£yw \jvS-s¸-«-hsc BZ-cn-¡p-t¼mÄ, HutZ-ym-Kn-I-Øm\w \ÂIp-t¼mÄ hnizm-kn-IÄ¡v Zp-jvt{]-c-Wbv¡v Imc-W-am-Ipw. ]m]PohnXw \bn-¡p-¶-hÀ F{X-h-en-b-hcpw iàcpw [\m-T-ycpw {]K-Ûcpw Bbn-cp-¶mepw Ahsc Xncp-¯p-Ibpw ap¶-dn-bn¸p sImSp-¡p-Ibpw sN¿phm\pÅ [mÀ½nI Npa-Xe k`m-t\-Xr-X-z-¯n-\p-WvsS¶mWv skâvt]mÄ HmÀ½-s¸-Sp-¯p-¶-Xv.

Ip«n-I-fn ]m]-k-z-`m-h-am-Ip¶ ]pfn¸v \t¶ sNdp¸w apX FSp¯p amä-Ww, Xncp-¯-Ww, Xm¡oXp sImSp-¡-Ww, Bh-i-y-sa-¦n _me-in-£bpw sImSp-¡-Ww. AÂ]w ]pfn-amhv hy-àn-X-zs¯ apgp-h\pw \in-¸n-¡pw.

       Pohn-X-]-¦m-fn-bn ]m]-k-z-`m-h-ioe§fpsS ]pfn-amhp IWvSm I®-S-bv¡-cp-Xv. kvt\l-]qÀÆw £a-tbmsS Xncp-¯-Ww. el-cnbpw   A¨-S-¡-an-Ãm¯ \ntj-[-hn-Imc Nn´-I-fp-sams¡ Xncp-¯-s¸-Sp-¶n-sÃ-¦n IpSpw-_-¯nsâ XIÀ¨-bnepw Ipªp-§-fpsS hgnsXäenepw Ah-km-\n-¡pw. ]m]-k-z-`mhw sNdp-X-sÃ, kmc-an-Ã, Cu kwkvImc¯nsâ `mKamWv F¶p Nn´n-¨m-i-z-kn-¡-cp-Xv. AÂ]w ]m]-]p-fn¸v hy-àn-X-zs¯ apgp-h³ \in-¸n-¡pw. ]d-tbWvSXv, ]d-tbWvS ka-b-¯v, ]dtbWvSXp-t]mse ]e-t¸m-gmbn £a-tbmsS BhÀ¯n¨p ]d-b-Ww.